Luminaires, Lampholders, and Lamps
Part I. General
- Scope. This article covers luminaires, portable lumin‐ aires, lampholders, pendants, incandescent filament lamps, arc lamps, electric-discharge lamps, decorative lighting products, lighting accessories for temporary seasonal and holiday use, portable flexible lighting products, and the wiring and equip‐ ment forming part of such products and lighting installations.
Closet Storage Space. The volume bounded by the sides and back closet walls and planes extending from the closet floor vertically to a height of 1.8 m (6 ft) or to the highest clothes- hanging rod and parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 600 mm (24 in.) from the sides and back of the closet walls, respectively, and continuing vertically to the closet ceiling parallel to the walls at a horizontal distance of 300 mm (12 in.) or the width of the shelf, whichever is greater; for a closet that permits access to both sides of a hanging rod, this space includes the volume below the highest rod extending 300 mm (12 in.) on either side of the rod on a plane horizontal to the floor extending the entire length of the rod. See Figure 410.2.
- Live Parts. Luminaires, portable luminaires, lamphold‐ ers, and lamps shall have no live parts normally exposed to contact. Exposed accessible terminals in lampholders and switches shall not be installed in metal luminaire canopies or in open bases of portable table or floor luminaires.Exception: Cleat-type lampholders located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor shall be permitted to have exposed terminals.
- Listing Required. All luminaires, lampholders, and retrofit kits shall be listed.
410.8 Inspection. Luminaires shall be installed such that the connections between the luminaire conductors and the circuit conductors can be inspected without requiring the disconnec‐
tion of any part of the wiring unless the luminaires are connec‐ ted by attachment plugs and receptacles.
Part II. Luminaire Locations
410.10 Luminaires in Specific Locations.
- Wet and Damp Locations. Luminaires installed in wet or damp locations shall be installed such that water cannot enter or accumulate in wiring compartments, lampholders, or other electrical parts. All luminaires installed in wet locations shall be marked, “Suitable for Wet Locations.” All luminaires installed in damp locations shall be marked “Suitable for Wet Locations” or “Suitable for Damp Locations.”
- Corrosive Locations. Luminaires installed in corrosive locations shall be of a type suitable for such locations.
- In Ducts or Hoods. Luminaires shall be permitted to be installed in commercial cooking hoods where all of the follow‐ ing conditions are met:
- The luminaire shall be identified for use within commer‐ cial cooking hoods and installed such that the tempera‐ ture limits of the materials used are not exceeded.
- The luminaire shall be constructed so that all exhaust vapors, grease, oil, or cooking vapors are excluded from the lamp and wiring compartment. Diffusers shall be resistant to thermal shock.
- Parts of the luminaire exposed within the hood shall be corrosion resistant or protected against corrosion, and the surface shall be smooth so as not to collect deposits and to facilitate cleaning.
- Wiring methods and materials supplying the luminaire(s) shall not be exposed within the cooking hood.
- Bathtub and Shower Areas. No parts of cord-connected luminaires, chain-, cable-, or cord-suspended luminaires, light‐ ing track, pendants, or ceiling-suspended (paddle) fans shall be
FIGURE 410.2 Closet Storage Space.located within a zone measured 900 mm (3 ft) horizontally and2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. This zone is all encompassing and includes the space directly over the tub or shower stall. Lumin‐ aires located within the actual outside dimension of the bath‐ tub or shower to a height of 2.5 m (8 ft) vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower threshold shall be marked for damp locations, or marked for wet locations where subject to shower spray.
- Luminaires in Indoor Sports, Mixed-Use, and All-Purpose Facilities. Luminaires subject to physical damage, using a mercury vapor or metal halide lamp, installed in playing and spectator seating areas of indoor sports, mixed-use, or all- purpose facilities shall be of the type that protects the lamp with a glass or plastic lens. Such luminaires shall be permitted to have an additional guard.
- Luminaires Installed in or Under Roof Decking. Lumin‐ aires installed in exposed or concealed locations under metal- corrugated sheet roof decking shall be installed and supported so there is not less than 38 mm (11∕2 in.) measured from the lowest surface of the roof decking to the top of the luminaire.
- Luminaires Near Combustible Material. Luminaires shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temper‐ atures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
- Luminaires over Combustible Material. Lampholders installed over highly combustible material shall be of the unswitched type. Unless an individual switch is provided for each luminaire, lampholders shall be located at least 2.5 m (8 ft) above the floor or shall be located or guarded so that the lamps cannot be readily removed or damaged.
410.14 Luminaires in Show Windows. Chain-supported lumin‐ aires used in a show window shall be permitted to be externally wired. No other externally wired luminaires shall be used.
410.16 Luminaires in Clothes Closets.
- Luminaire Types Permitted. Only luminaires of the following types shall be permitted in a closet:
- Surface-mounted or recessed incandescent or LED luminaires with completely enclosed light sources
- Surface-mounted or recessed fluorescent luminaires
- Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires identi‐ fied as suitable for installation within the closet storage space
- Luminaire Types Not Permitted. Incandescent luminaires with open or partially enclosed lamps and pendant luminaires or lampholders shall not be permitted.
- Location. The minimum clearance between luminaires installed in clothes closets and the nearest point of a closet stor‐ age space shall be as follows:
- 300 mm (12 in.) for surface-mounted incandescent or LED luminaires with a completely enclosed light source installed on the wall above the door or on the ceiling.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for surface-mounted fluorescent lumin‐ aires installed on the wall above the door or on the ceil‐ ing.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed incandescent or LED lumin‐ aires with a completely enclosed light source installed in the wall or the ceiling.
- 150 mm (6 in.) for recessed fluorescent luminaires instal‐ led in the wall or the ceiling.
- Surface-mounted fluorescent or LED luminaires shall be permitted to be installed within the closet storage space where identified for this use.
410.18 Space for Cove Lighting. Coves shall have adequate space and shall be located so that lamps and equipment can be properly installed and maintained.
Part III. Provisions at Luminaire Outlet Boxes, Canopies, and Pans
- Space for Conductors. Canopies and outlet boxes taken together shall provide sufficient space so that luminaire conductors and their connecting devices are capable of being installed in accordance with 314.16.
- Temperature Limit of Conductors in Outlet Boxes. Luminaires shall be of such construction or installed so that the conductors in outlet boxes shall not be subjected to temperatures greater than that for which the conductors are rated.Branch-circuit wiring, other than 2-wire or multiwire branch circuits supplying power to luminaires connected together, shall not be passed through an outlet box that is an integral part of a luminaire unless the luminaire is identified for through-wiring.Informational Note: See 410.64(C) for wiring supplying power to luminaires connected together.
- Outlet Boxes to Be Covered. In a completed installa‐ tion, each outlet box shall be provided with a cover unless covered by means of a luminaire canopy, lampholder, recepta‐ cle, or similar device.
- Covering of Combustible Material at Outlet Boxes. Any combustible wall or ceiling finish exposed between the edge of a luminaire canopy or pan and an outlet box having a surface area of 1160 mm2 (180 in.2) or more shall be covered with noncombustible material.
- Connection of Electric-Discharge and LED Luminaires.
- Independent of the Outlet Box. Electric-discharge and LED luminaires supported independently of the outlet box shall be connected to the branch circuit through metal race‐ way, nonmetallic raceway, Type MC cable, Type AC cable, Type MI cable, nonmetallic sheathed cable, or by flexible cord as permitted in 410.62(B) or 410.62(C).
- Access to Boxes. Electric-discharge and LED luminaires surface mounted over concealed outlet, pull, or junction boxes and designed not to be supported solely by the outlet box shall be provided with suitable openings in the back of the luminaire to provide access to the wiring in the box.
Part IV. Luminaire Supports
- General. Luminaires and lampholders shall be securely supported. A luminaire that weighs more than 3 kg (6 lb) or exceeds 400 mm (16 in.) in any dimension shall not be suppor‐ ted by the screw shell of a lampholder.
- Metal or Nonmetallic Poles Supporting Luminaires. Metal or nonmetallic poles shall be permitted to be used to support luminaires and as a raceway to enclose supply conductors, provided the following conditions are met:
- A pole shall have a handhole not less than 50 mm × 100 mm (2 in. × 4 in.) with a cover suitable for use in wet locations to provide access to the supply terminations within the pole or pole base.Exception No. 1: No handhole shall be required in a pole 2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull point, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.Exception No. 2: No handhole shall be required in a pole 6.0 m (20 ft) or less in height abovegrade that is provided with a hinged base.
- Where raceway risers or cable is not installed within the pole, a threaded fitting or nipple shall be brazed, welded, or attached to the pole opposite the handhole for the supply connection.
- A metal pole shall be provided with an equipment grounding terminal as follows:
- A pole with a handhole shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible from the handhole.
- A pole with a hinged base shall have the equipment grounding terminal accessible within the base.Exception to (3): No grounding terminal shall be required in a pole2.5 m (8 ft) or less in height abovegrade where the supply wiring method continues without splice or pull, and where the interior of the pole and any splices are accessible by removing the luminaire.
- A metal pole with a hinged base shall have the hinged base and pole bonded together.
- Metal raceways or other equipment grounding conduc‐ tors shall be bonded to the metal pole with an equipment grounding conductor recognized by 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
- Conductors in vertical poles used as raceway shall be supported as provided in 300.19.
410.36 Means of Support.
- Outlet Boxes. Outlet boxes or fittings installed as required by 314.23 and complying with the provisions of 314.27(A)(1) and 314.27(A)(2) shall be permitted to support luminaires.
- Suspended Ceilings. Framing members of suspended ceil‐ ing systems used to support luminaires shall be securely fastened to each other and shall be securely attached to the building structure at appropriate intervals. Luminaires shall be securely fastened to the ceiling framing member by mechanical means such as bolts, screws, or rivets. Listed clips identified for use with the type of ceiling framing member(s) and lumin‐ aire(s) shall also be permitted.
- Luminaire Studs. Luminaire studs that are not a part of outlet boxes, hickeys, tripods, and crowfeet shall be made of steel, malleable iron, or other material suitable for the applica‐ tion.
- Insulating Joints. Insulating joints that are not designed to be mounted with screws or bolts shall have an exterior metal casing, insulated from both screw connections.
- Raceway Fittings. Raceway fittings used to support a luminaire(s) shall be capable of supporting the weight of the complete fixture assembly and lamp(s).
- Busways. Luminaires shall be permitted to be connected to busways in accordance with 368.17(C).
- Trees. Outdoor luminaires and associated equipment shall be permitted to be supported by trees.
Informational Note No. 1: See 225.26 for restrictions for support of overhead conductors.
Informational Note No. 2: See 300.5(D) for protection of conductors.
Part V. Grounding
410.40 General. Luminaires and lighting equipment shall be grounded as required in Article 250 and Part V of this article.
410.42 Luminaire(s) with Exposed Conductive Parts. Exposed metal parts shall be connected to an equipment grounding conductor or insulated from the equipment grounding conductor and other conducting surfaces or be inaccessible to unqualified personnel. Lamp tie wires, mount‐ ing screws, clips, and decorative bands on glass spaced at least 38 mm (11∕2 in.) from lamp terminals shall not be required to be grounded.
410.44 Methods of Grounding. Luminaires and equipment shall be mechanically connected to an equipment grounding conductor as specified in 250.118 and sized in accordance with 250.122.
Exception No. 1: Luminaires made of insulating material that is directly wired or attached to outlets supplied by a wiring method that does not provide a ready means for grounding attachment to an equip‐ ment grounding conductor shall be made of insulating material and shall have no exposed conductive parts.
Exception No. 2: Replacement luminaires shall be permitted to connect an equipment grounding conductor from the outlet in compliance with 250.130(C). The luminaire shall then comply with 410.42.
Exception No. 3: Where no equipment grounding conductor exists at the outlet, replacement luminaires that are GFCI protected shall not be required to be connected to an equipment grounding conductor.
410.46 Equipment Grounding Conductor Attachment. Lumin‐ aires with exposed metal parts shall be provided with a means for connecting an equipment grounding conductor for such luminaires.
Part VI. Wiring of Luminaires
410.48 Luminaire Wiring — General. Wiring on or within luminaires shall be neatly arranged and shall not be exposed to physical damage. Excess wiring shall be avoided. Conductors shall be arranged so that they are not subjected to tempera‐ tures above those for which they are rated.
410.50 Polarization of Luminaires. Luminaires shall be wired so that the screw shells of lampholders are connected to the same luminaire or circuit conductor or terminal. The groun‐ ded conductor, where connected to a screw shell lampholder, shall be connected to the screw shell.
410.52 Conductor Insulation. Luminaires shall be wired with conductors having insulation suitable for the environmental conditions, current, voltage, and temperature to which the conductors will be subjected.
Informational Note: For ampacity of fixture wire, maximum operating temperature, voltage limitations, minimum wire size, and other information, see Article 402.
410.54 Pendant Conductors for Incandescent Filament Lamps.
- Support. Pendant lampholders with permanently attached leads, where used for other than festoon wiring, shall be hung from separate stranded rubber-covered conductors that are soldered directly to the circuit conductors but suppor‐ ted independently thereof.
- Size. Unless part of listed decorative lighting assemblies, pendant conductors shall not be smaller than 14 AWG for mogul-base or medium-base screw shell lampholders or smaller than 18 AWG for intermediate or candelabra-base lampholders.
- Twisted or Cabled. Pendant conductors longer than 900 mm (3 ft) shall be twisted together where not cabled in a listed assembly.
410.56 Protection of Conductors and Insulation.
- Properly Secured. Conductors shall be secured in a manner that does not tend to cut or abrade the insulation.
- Protection Through Metal. Conductor insulation shall be protected from abrasion where it passes through metal.
- Luminaire Stems. Splices and taps shall not be located within luminaire arms or stems.
- Splices and Taps. No unnecessary splices or taps shall be made within or on a luminaire.Informational Note: For approved means of making connec‐ tions, see 110.14.
- Stranding. Stranded conductors shall be used for wiring on luminaire chains and on other movable or flexible parts.
- Tension. Conductors shall be arranged so that the weight of the luminaire or movable parts does not put tension on the conductors.
410.59 Cord-Connected Showcases. Individual showcases, other than fixed, shall be permitted to be connected by flexible cord to permanently installed receptacles, and groups of not more than six such showcases shall be permitted to be coupled together by flexible cord and separable locking-type connec‐ tors with one of the group connected by flexible cord to a permanently installed receptacle.
The installation shall comply with 410.59(A) through (E).
- Cord Requirements. Flexible cord shall be of the hard- service type, having conductors not smaller than the branch- circuit conductors, having ampacity at least equal to the branch-circuit overcurrent device, and having an equipment grounding conductor.Informational Note: See Table 250.122 for size of equipment grounding conductor.
- Receptacles, Connectors, and Attachment Plugs. Recepta‐ cles, connectors, and attachment plugs shall be of a listed grounding type rated 15 or 20 amperes.
- Support. Flexible cords shall be secured to the under‐ sides of showcases such that all of the following conditions are ensured:
- The wiring is not exposed to physical damage.
- The separation between cases is not in excess of 50 mm (2 in.), or more than 300 mm (12 in.) between the first case and the supply receptacle.
- The free lead at the end of a group of showcases has a female fitting not extending beyond the case.
- No Other Equipment. Equipment other than showcases shall not be electrically connected to showcases.
- Secondary Circuit(s). Where showcases are cord- connected, the secondary circuit(s) of each electric-discharge lighting ballast shall be limited to one showcase.
410.62 Cord-Connected Lampholders and Luminaires.
- Lampholders. Where a metal lampholder is attached to a flexible cord, the inlet shall be equipped with an insulating bushing that, if threaded, is not smaller than metric designator 12 (trade size 3∕8) pipe size. The cord hole shall be of a size appropriate for the cord, and all burrs and fins shall be removed in order to provide a smooth bearing surface for the cord.Bushing having holes 7 mm (9∕32 in.) in diameter shall be permitted for use with plain pendant cord and holes 11 mm (13∕32 in.) in diameter with reinforced cord.
- Adjustable Luminaires. Luminaires that require adjusting or aiming after installation shall not be required to be equip‐ ped with an attachment plug or cord connector, provided the exposed cord is suitable for hard-usage or extra-hard-usage and is not longer than that required for maximum adjustment. The cord shall not be subject to strain or physical damage.
Informational Note: For application provisions, see Table 400.4,“Use” column.
- Electric-Discharge and LED Luminaires. Electric- discharge and LED luminaires shall comply with (1), (2), and (3) as applicable.
- Cord-Connected Installation. A luminaire or a listed assembly in compliance with any of the conditions in (a) through (c) shall be permitted to be cord connected provided the luminaire is located directly below the outlet or busway, the cord is not subject to strain or physical damage, and the cord is visible over its entire length except at terminations.
- A luminaire shall be permitted to be connected with a cord terminating in a grounding-type attachment plug or busway plug.
- A luminaire assembly equipped with a strain relief and canopy shall be permitted to use a cord connection between the luminaire assembly and the canopy. The canopy shall be permitted to include a section of raceway not over 150 mm (6 in.) in length and intended to facilitate the connec‐ tion to an outlet box mounted above a suspended ceiling.
- (c) Listed luminaires connected using listed assemblies
- Provided with Mogul-Base, Screw Shell Lampholders. Electric-discharge luminaires provided with mogul-base, screw shell lampholders shall be permitted to be connected tobranch circuits of 50 amperes or less by cords complying with240.5. Receptacles and attachment plugs shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire full-load current.
- Equipped with Flanged Surface Inlet. Electric-discharge luminaires equipped with a flanged surface inlet shall be permitted to be supplied by cord pendants equipped with cord connectors. Inlets and connectors shall be permitted to be of a lower ampere rating than the branch circuit but not less than 125 percent of the luminaire load current.
- Cord-Connected Installation. A luminaire or a listed assembly in compliance with any of the conditions in (a) through (c) shall be permitted to be cord connected provided the luminaire is located directly below the outlet or busway, the cord is not subject to strain or physical damage, and the cord is visible over its entire length except at terminations.
410.64 Luminaires as Raceways. Luminaires shall not be used as a raceway for circuit conductors unless they comply with 410.64(A), (B), or (C).
- Listed. Luminaires listed and marked for use as a raceway shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
- Through-Wiring. Luminaires identified for through- wiring, as permitted by 410.21, shall be permitted to be used as a raceway.
- Luminaires Connected Together. Luminaires designed for end-to-end connection to form a continuous assembly, or luminaires connected together by recognized wiring methods, shall be permitted to contain the conductors of a 2-wire branch circuit, or one multiwire branch circuit, supplying the connec‐ ted luminaires and shall not be required to be listed as a race‐ way. One additional 2-wire branch circuit separately supplying one or more of the connected luminaires shall also be permit‐ ted.
Informational Note: See Article 100 for the definition of Multi‐ wire Branch Circuit.
410.68 Feeder and Branch-Circuit Conductors and Ballasts. Feeder and branch-circuit conductors within 75 mm (3 in.) of a ballast, LED driver, power supply, or transformer shall have an insulation temperature rating not lower than 90°C (194°F), unless supplying a luminaire marked as suitable for a different insulation temperature.
Part VII. Construction of Luminaires
410.70 Combustible Shades and Enclosures. Adequate airspace shall be provided between lamps and shades or other enclosures of combustible material.
410.74 Luminaire Rating.
- Marking. All luminaires shall be marked with the maxi‐ mum lamp wattage or electrical rating, manufacturer’s name, trademark, or other suitable means of identification. A lumin‐ aire requiring supply wire rated higher than 60°C (140°F) shall be marked with the minimum supply wire temperature rating on the luminaire and shipping carton or equivalent.
- Electrical Rating. The electrical rating shall include the voltage and frequency and shall indicate the current rating of the unit, including the ballast, transformer, LED driver, power supply, or autotransformer.
410.82 Portable Luminaires.
- General. Portable luminaires shall be wired with flexible cord recognized by 400.4 and an attachment plug of the polar‐ ized or grounding type. Where used with Edison-base lamp‐ holders, the grounded conductor shall be identified and
attached to the screw shell and the identified blade of the attachment plug.
- Portable Handlamps. In addition to the provisions of 410.82(A), portable handlamps shall comply with the follow‐ ing:
- Metal shell, paper-lined lampholders shall not be used.
- Handlamps shall be equipped with a handle of molded composition or other insulating material.
- Handlamps shall be equipped with a substantial guard attached to the lampholder or handle.
- Metallic guards shall be grounded by means of an equip‐ ment grounding conductor run with circuit conductors within the power-supply cord.
- Portable handlamps shall not be required to be grounded where supplied through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded secondary of not over 50 volts.
410.84 Cord Bushings. A bushing or the equivalent shall be provided where flexible cord enters the base or stem of a porta‐ ble luminaire. The bushing shall be of insulating material unless a jacketed type of cord is used.
Part VIII. Installation of Lampholders
410.90 Screw Shell Type. Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be installed for use as lampholders only. Where supplied by a circuit having a grounded conductor, the grounded conductor shall be connected to the screw shell.
410.93 Double-Pole Switched Lampholders. Where supplied by the ungrounded conductors of a circuit, the switching device of lampholders of the switched type shall simultaneously disconnect both conductors of the circuit.
- Lampholders in Wet or Damp Locations. Lampholders installed in wet locations shall be listed for use in wet locations. Lampholders installed in damp locations shall be listed for damp locations or shall be listed for wet locations.
- Lampholders Near Combustible Material. Lamphold‐ ers shall be constructed, installed, or equipped with shades or guards so that combustible material is not subjected to temper‐ atures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
Part IX. Lamps and Auxiliary Equipment
- Bases, Incandescent Lamps. An incandescent lamp for general use on lighting branch circuits shall not be equip‐ ped with a medium base if rated over 300 watts, or with a mogul base if rated over 1500 watts. Special bases or other devi‐ ces shall be used for over 1500 watts.
- Electric-Discharge Lamp Auxiliary Equipment.
- Enclosures. Auxiliary equipment for electric-discharge lamps shall be enclosed in noncombustible cases and treated as sources of heat.
- Switching. Where supplied by the ungrounded conduc‐ tors of a circuit, the switching device of auxiliary equipment shall simultaneously disconnect all conductors.
Part X. Special Provisions for Flush and Recessed Luminaires
410.110 General. Luminaires installed in recessed cavities in walls or ceilings, including suspended ceilings, shall comply with 410.115 through 410.122.
- Combustible Material. Luminaires shall be installed so that adjacent combustible material will not be subjected to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
- Fire-Resistant Construction. Where a luminaire is recessed in fire-resistant material in a building of fire-resistant construction, a temperature higher than 90°C (194°F) but not higher than 150°C (302°F) shall be considered acceptable if the luminaire is plainly marked for that service.
- Recessed Incandescent Luminaires. Incandescent lumin‐ aires shall have thermal protection and shall be identified as thermally protected.
- Clearance and Installation.
- Non-Type IC. A recessed luminaire that is not identified for contact with insulation shall have all recessed parts spaced not less than 13 mm (1∕2 in.) from combustible materials. The points of support and the trim finishing off the openings in the ceiling, wall, or other finished surface shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials.
- Type IC. A recessed luminaire that is identified for contact with insulation, Type IC, shall be permitted to be in contact with combustible materials at recessed parts, points of support, and portions passing through or finishing off the opening in the building structure.
- Installation. Thermal insulation shall not be installed above a recessed luminaire or within 75 mm (3 in.) of the recessed luminaire’s enclosure, wiring compartment, ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply unless the luminaire is identified as Type IC for insulation contact.
- General. Conductors that have insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be used.
- Circuit Conductors. Branch-circuit conductors that have an insulation suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to terminate in the luminaire.
- Tap Conductors. Tap conductors of a type suitable for the temperature encountered shall be permitted to run from the luminaire terminal connection to an outlet box placed at least 300 mm (1 ft) from the luminaire. Such tap conductors shall be in suitable raceway or Type AC or MC cable of at least 450 mm (18 in.) but not more than 1.8 m (6 ft) in length.
Part XI. Construction of Flush and Recessed Luminaires
- Temperature. Luminaires shall be constructed such that adjacent combustible material is not subject to tempera‐ tures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
- Lamp Wattage Marking. Incandescent lamp lumin‐ aires shall be marked to indicate the maximum allowable wattage of lamps. The markings shall be permanently installed, in letters at least 6 mm (1∕4 in.) high, and shall be located where visible during relamping.
- Solder Prohibited. No solder shall be used in the construction of a luminaire recessed housing.
- Lampholders. Lampholders of the screw shell type shall be of porcelain or other suitable insulating materials.
Part XII. Special Provisions for Electric-Discharge Lighting Systems of 1000 Volts or Less
- Open-Circuit Voltage of 1000 Volts or Less. Equipment for use with electric-discharge lighting systems and designed for an open-circuit voltage of 1000 volts or less shall be of a type identified for such service.
- Considered as Energized. The terminals of an electric- discharge lamp shall be considered as energized where any lamp terminal is connected to a circuit of over 300 volts.
- Transformers of the Oil-Filled Type. Transformers of the oil-filled type shall not be used.
- Additional Requirements. In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XII of this article.
- Thermal Protection — Fluorescent Luminaires.
- Integral Thermal Protection. The ballast of a fluorescent luminaire installed indoors shall have integral thermal protec‐ tion. Replacement ballasts shall also have thermal protection integral with the ballast.
- Simple Reactance Ballasts. A simple reactance ballast in a fluorescent luminaire with straight tubular lamps shall not be required to be thermally protected.
- Exit Luminaires. A ballast in a fluorescent exit luminaire shall not have thermal protection.
- Egress Luminaires. A ballast in a fluorescent luminaire that is used for egress lighting and energized only during a fail‐ ure of the normal supply shall not have thermal protection.
- High-Intensity Discharge Luminaires.
- Recessed. Recessed high-intensity luminaires designed to be installed in wall or ceiling cavities shall have thermal protec‐ tion and be identified as thermally protected.
- Inherently Protected. Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity luminaire whose design, construction, and thermal performance characteristics are equivalent to a thermally protected luminaire and are identi‐ fied as inherently protected.
- Installed in Poured Concrete. Thermal protection shall not be required in a recessed high-intensity discharge lumin‐ aire identified for use and installed in poured concrete.
- Recessed Remote Ballasts. A recessed remote ballast for a high-intensity discharge luminaire shall have thermal protec‐ tion that is integral with the ballast and shall be identified as thermally protected.
- Metal Halide Lamp Containment. Luminaires that use a metal halide lamp other than a thick-glass parabolic reflector lamp (PAR) shall be provided with a containment barrier that encloses the lamp, or shall be provided with a physical means that only allows the use of a lamp that is Type O.Informational Note: See ANSI Standard C78.389, American National Standard for Electric Lamps — High Intensity Discharge, Methods of Measuring Characteristics.
- Disconnecting Means.
- General. In indoor locations other than dwellings and associated accessory structures, fluorescent luminaires that utilize double-ended lamps and contain ballast(s) that can be serviced in place shall have a disconnecting means either inter‐ nal or external to each luminaire. For existing installed lumin‐ aires without disconnecting means, at the time a ballast is replaced, a disconnecting means shall be installed. The line side terminals of the disconnecting means shall be guarded.Exception No. 1: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires installed in hazardous (classified) location(s).Exception No. 2: A disconnecting means shall not be required for luminaires that provide emergency illumination required in 700.16.Exception No. 3: For cord-and-plug-connected luminaires, an accessible separable connector or an accessible plug and receptacle shall be permit‐ ted to serve as the disconnecting means.Exception No. 4: Where more than one luminaire is installed and supplied by other than a multiwire branch circuit, a disconnecting means shall not be required for every luminaire when the design of the installation includes disconnecting means, such that the illuminated space cannot be left in total darkness.
- Multiwire Branch Circuits. When connected to multiwire branch circuits, the disconnecting means shall simultaneously break all the supply conductors to the ballast, including the grounded conductor.
- Location. The disconnecting means shall be located so as to be accessible to qualified persons before servicing or main‐ taining the ballast. Where the disconnecting means is external to the luminaire, it shall be a single device, and shall be attached to the luminaire or the luminaire shall be located within sight of the disconnecting means.
- Direct-Current Equipment. Luminaires installed on dc circuits shall be equipped with auxiliary equipment and resistors designed for dc operation. The luminaires shall be marked for dc operation.
- Open-Circuit Voltage Exceeding 300 Volts. Equip‐ ment having an open-circuit voltage exceeding 300 volts shall not be installed in dwelling occupancies unless such equipment is designed so that there will be no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted, are in place, or are being removed.
- Luminaire Mounting.
- Exposed Components. Luminaires that have exposed ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall be installed such that ballasts, transformers, LED drivers, or power supplies shall not be in contact with combustible material unless listed for such condition.
- Combustible Low-Density Cellulose Fiberboard. Where a surface-mounted luminaire containing a ballast, transformer, LED driver, or power supply is to be installed on combustible low-density cellulose fiberboard, it shall be marked for this condition or shall be spaced not less than 38 mm (11∕2 in.) from the surface of the fiberboard. Where such luminaires are parti‐ ally or wholly recessed, the provisions of 410.110 through
410.122 shall apply.
Informational Note: Combustible low-density cellulose fiber‐ board includes sheets, panels, and tiles that have a density of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or less and that are formed of bonded plant fiber material but does not include solid or laminated wood or fiberboard that has a density in excess of 320 kg/m3 (20 lb/ft3) or is a material that has been integrally treated with fire-retarding chemicals to the degree that the flame spread index in any plane of the material will not exceed 25, deter‐ mined in accordance with tests for surface burning characteris‐ tics of building materials. See ANSI/ASTM E84–2015a, Standard Test Method for Surface Burning Characteristics of Building Materials or ANSI/UL 723–2013, Standard for Test for Surface Burning Char‐ acteristics of Building Materials.
- Equipment Not Integral with Luminaire.
- Metal Cabinets. Auxiliary equipment, including reactors, capacitors, resistors, and similar equipment, where not instal‐ led as part of a luminaire assembly, shall be enclosed in accessi‐ ble, permanently installed metal cabinets.
- Separate Mounting. Separately mounted ballasts, trans‐ formers, LED drivers, or power supplies that are listed for direct connection to a wiring system shall not be required to be additionally enclosed.
- Wired Luminaire Sections. Wired luminaire sections are paired, with a ballast(s) supplying a lamp or lamps in both. For interconnection between paired units, it shall be permissible to use metric designator 12 (trade size 3∕8) flexible metal conduit in lengths not exceeding 7.5 m (25 ft), in conformance with Article 348. Luminaire wire operating at line voltage, supplying only the ballast(s) of one of the paired luminaires shall be permitted in the same raceway as the lamp supply wires of the paired luminaires.
- Autotransformers. An autotransformer that is used to raise the voltage to more than 300 volts, as part of a ballast for supplying lighting units, shall be supplied only by a grounded system.
- Switches. Snap switches shall comply with 404.14.
Part XIII. Special Provisions for Electric-Discharge Lighting Systems of More Than 1000 Volts
- Listing. Electric-discharge lighting systems with an open- circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall be listed and installed in conformance with that listing.
- Dwelling Occupancies. Equipment that has an open- circuit voltage exceeding 1000 volts shall not be installed in or on dwelling occupancies.
- Live Parts. The terminal of an electric-discharge lamp shall be considered as a live part.
- Additional Requirements. In addition to complying with the general requirements for luminaires, such equipment shall comply with Part XIII of this article.
- Disconnection. Luminaires or lamp installation shall be controlled either singly or in groups by an externally operable switch or circuit breaker that opens all ungrounded primary conductors.
- Within Sight or Locked Type. The switch or circuit breaker shall be located within sight from the luminaires or lamps, or it shall be permitted to be located elsewhere if it is lockable in accordance with 110.25.
- Lamp Terminals and Lampholders. Parts that must be removed for lamp replacement shall be hinged or held captive. Lamps or lampholders shall be designed so that there are no exposed live parts when lamps are being inserted or removed.
- Type. Transformers shall be enclosed, identified for the use, and listed.
- Voltage. The secondary circuit voltage shall not exceed 15,000 volts, nominal, under any load condition. The voltage to ground of any output terminals of the secondary circuit shall not exceed 7500 volts under any load conditions.
- Rating. Transformers shall have a secondary short-circuit current rating of not more than 150 mA if the open-circuit volt‐ age is over 7500 volts, and not more than 300 mA if the open- circuit voltage rating is 7500 volts or less.
- Secondary Connections. Secondary circuit outputs shall not be connected in parallel or in series.
- Transformer Locations.
- Accessible. Transformers shall be accessible after installa‐ tion.
- Secondary Conductors. Transformers shall be installed as near to the lamps as practicable to keep the secondary conduc‐ tors as short as possible.
- Adjacent to Combustible Materials. Transformers shall be located so that adjacent combustible materials are not subjec‐ ted to temperatures in excess of 90°C (194°F).
- Exposure to Damage. Lamps shall not be located where normally exposed to physical damage.
- Marking. Each luminaire or each secondary circuit of tubing having an open-circuit voltage of over 1000 volts shall have a clearly legible marking in letters not less than 6 mm (1∕4 in.) high reading “Caution volts.” The voltage indica‐ ted shall be the rated open-circuit voltage. The caution sign(s) or label(s) shall comply with 110.21(B).
ARTICLE 411 — LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING 411.6
Part XIV. Lighting Track
- Lighting Track. Lighting track shall be permanently instal‐ led and permanently connected to a branch circuit. Only light‐ ing track fittings shall be installed on lighting track. Lighting track fittings shall not be equipped with general-purpose recep‐ tacles.
- Connected Load. The connected load on lighting track shall not exceed the rating of the track. Lighting track shall be supplied by a branch circuit having a rating not more than that of the track. The load calculation in 220.43(B) shall not be required to limit the length of track on a single branch circuit, and it shall not be required to limit the number of luminaires on a single track.
- Locations Not Permitted. Lighting track shall not be installed in the following locations:
- Where likely to be subjected to physical damage
- In wet or damp locations
- Where subject to corrosive vapors
- In storage battery rooms
- In hazardous (classified) locations
- Where concealed
- Where extended through walls or partitions
- Less than 1.5 m (5 ft) above the finished floor except where protected from physical damage or track operating at less than 30 volts rms open-circuit voltage
- Where prohibited by 410.10(D)
- Support. Fittings identified for use on lighting track shall be designed specifically for the track on which they are to be installed. They shall be securely fastened to the track, shall maintain polarization and connections to the equipment grounding conductor, and shall be designed to be suspended directly from the track.
- Heavy-Duty Lighting Track. Heavy-duty lighting track is lighting track identified for use exceeding 20 amperes. Each fitting attached to a heavy-duty lighting track shall have individ‐ ual overcurrent protection.
- Fastening. Lighting track shall be securely mounted so that each fastening is suitable for supporting the maximum weight of luminaires that can be installed. Unless identified for supports at greater intervals, a single section 1.2 m (4 ft) or shorter in length shall have two supports, and, where installed in a continuous row, each individual section of not more than
1.2 m (4 ft) in length shall have one additional support.
410.155 Construction Requirements.
- Construction. The housing for the lighting track system shall be of substantial construction to maintain rigidity. The conductors shall be installed within the track housing, permit‐ ting insertion of a luminaire, and designed to prevent tamper‐ ing and accidental contact with live parts. Components of lighting track systems of different voltages shall not be inter‐ changeable. The track conductors shall be a minimum 12 AWG or equal and shall be copper. The track system ends shall be insulated and capped.
- Grounding. Lighting track shall be grounded in accord‐ ance with Article 250, and the track sections shall be securely coupled to maintain continuity of the circuitry, polarization, and grounding throughout.
Part XV. Decorative Lighting and Similar Accessories
410.160 Listing of Decorative Lighting. Decorative lighting and similar accessories used for holiday lighting and similar purposes, in accordance with 590.3(B), shall be listed.